Ideally, we’d all want our kids to be that way, focusing on learning, not grades; on improving and not just proving he is smart; enjoying the journey of learning.
In general, there are two types of goal orientations people adopt: mastery and performance. Mastery orientation centers on learning and improvement, while performance orientation focuses on showing competence against others. Psychologists have found that having a mastery orientation carries the most benefits – some of its positive qualities include: persistence, a desire to learn, and seeking out challenges to further improve.
But how can children have this type of mindset – one that focuses on high commitment and eagerness in learning as well as resilience when they fail?
It turns out parents have the key; they have great influence on a child’s willingness to learn. However, they don’t always know how to provide appropriate encouragement. In their book Motivated Minds: Raising Children to Love Learning, Dr. Deborah Stipek, internationally recognized scholar and dean of the School of Education at Stanford University, and Kathy Seal argue that parents and teachers can create a solid foundation for learning by helping children develop the four key elements of success: competency, autonomy, curiosity, and critical relationships.
So to help you get started, here are six strategies that cover some of these elements that can kickstart your little one’s willingness to learn and succeed:
- Associate school learning to everyday life activities
The more your child sees the connection between what he learns with what he experiences in real life, the greater interest he will have in learning about the subject!
You can start conversations, plan a trip, or relate the subject to familiar events or family members to associate the topic to daily life.
For example, if your child is reading a book, try to ask him if the main character resembles anyone they know or if the story scenario is like a place you have visited before.
- Offer various types of experiences
Family trips or even everyday errands can spike a child’s curiosity. Remember that exposing your child to diverse experiences can offer many learning opportunities and increase your child’s desire to explore!
A visit to the park, museum, hardware store, market, or the ocean can enhance what children learn in books and school.
If your child has trouble with a certain subject – just try to do simple and fun activities to get him interested in something related to that. For example, if it’s math that he is struggling with, you can cook together to teach him about measurements. Or if perhaps your child is not feeling interested about a particular book, start a conversation about how it relates to his experiences or your family.
- Make your child feel competent
Nothing motivates children (and adults!) than a feeling of competence. After children learn something new, they can’t wait to try it again. That’s why we see toddlers practicing emptying and filling boxes over and over again. They are trying out their newly learned skills! It’s a feeling of both satisfaction and curiosity that motivates them.
Another part of building competence is being careful with the encouraging statements you say to your child. We’ve talked about this on previous posts, but it’s basically about avoiding praise on intelligence or vague praises. You should acknowledge what your child has accomplished and give him the chance to demonstrate what he has learned in the process. For instance, you can say, “You worked really hard on your drawing! I really liked how you organized the colors. Tell me more about what the colors mean.”
Remember that when you are giving feedback, it’s best to be specific on what you liked and ask to him questions about it, that way he will feel competent about the skills he is acquiring!
An inevitable part of every learning journey, is feeling discouraged. Children are bound to feel this way at one point or the other, so what can you do in this situation? Remind your little one of what he already knows to restore his confidence, remind him that he has been able to successfully tackle similar tasks in the past, that he has the ability to get through it. Additionally, avoid saying, “that’s easy” to provide encouragement. It has been proven to actually backfire and make people feel incompetent. When your child struggles with a task, acknowledge the difficulty and offer constructive suggestions to help.
- Be excited about learning! It is contagious, pass it on
If your child is passionate about a particular interest, show enthusiasm and encourage him to explore more about the subject!
An effective way to learn about different subjects is through books, so it’s a good idea for you to develop a reading habit in your family. Remember that you are your child’s role model, so when you read books and magazines for pleasure, it sends out the message that reading is something fun!
You can start reading to your children as early as their first few months; remember, the sooner the better. This activity is not only helpful for bonding, but also is an effective way to develop his linguistic skills!
- Focus on learning, rather than good grades
Unfortunately, society’s weight on testing does put a lot of unnecessary pressure and anxiety on children. You can decrease such worries by focusing on what he learned, rather than on his grades. For instance, ask your child to tell you more about a class project, rather than asking what grade he got on it. Additionally, avoid comparing your child to his friends, siblings, or peers – remember to focus on his own progress.
- Shed a positive light on failure
Look at failure as a learning opportunity. Give your child enough freedom to make choices, but let him know that you are there for him if he needs help. Make sure to remind your child that people who don’t make mistakes, are not leaning anything new. Whenever your child fails at something, go over the task and try to figure out together where the mistake lies or what part he did not understand.
As we can see, there are many things parents can do to promote a mastery-oriented mindset. Research by psychologist Paul O’Keefe, from Stanford University, shows that there are long-term effects to being exposed to a mastery-oriented environment. In his study, students who were exposed to an environment that emphasized on learning for the sake of knowledge, where concerns of outperforming others were very small, maintained a mastery oriented mindset 6 months later! These students were immersed in that environment for a summer program, but it goes to show that once a mastery goal orientation has been fostered and reinforced, patterns of motivation persist.