Receptive language: What your two-year-old really understands

Your two-year-old’s language development is blooming. He now probably has an active vocabulary of approximately 50 or more words, and understands most of what you say to him. This is called receptive language or the ability to understand the meaning behind words. Specifically, at this age most children understand between 200 and 300 words, adding as much as 10 new words a day. By the time he turns three, the number of words your little one understands will probably be around 900. These will include adjectives, common verbs and prepositions like over and under.

Children’s receptive language develops when they gain information from their environment (like their routine, visual cues, sounds, spoken words, written words, and more). They are constantly absorbing and learning. The building blocks for receptive language are attention and concentration, communicating through gestures, social and play skills (engagement in self-motivated activities).

Feel like your little one does not understand what you say to him? Try the following to develop his receptive language:
• Be face-to-face and make eye-contact with your child before giving him an instruction, making sure you have his attention.
• When talking to your little one, use words just a little bit more advanced than his expressive language or the words he normally uses.
• Use body language and facial expressions as visual aids to help your little one comprehend what you’re trying to say.
• Reduce distractions by turning off any background noise when you are talking, like the television or music.
• Encourage your little one to ask for you to clarify or repeat what you said if he doesn’t understand it at first.

You now know your little one understands most of what you say! So, it’s a good idea to keep this in mind when you are talking about him when he is around.

Literacy development: The importance of phonological awareness

Between 3 to 5 years old, a preschooler’s literacy abilities begin to develop, laying the bases for later reading and academic abilities. Experts state that the most important ability for literacy development is the phonological awareness, in other words the ability to recognize the individual sound units that make up words. Acquiring phonetic awareness builds the foundation for reading and spelling. It’s considered one of the best predictors of how well children will learn to read.

Once your child is able to distinguish the individual sounds she hears, then she will be able to relate them to their visual representation in the form of a letter or word. Therefore, instead of teaching your daughter the names for the letters in the alphabet, teach her the different sounds for each of them. This will be more beneficial for her literacy development. For example, say “aah” instead of just calling the letter an “A”.

There are a lot of short and fun phonetic word games you can try at home to help your little one isolate and discern the individual sounds that make up words. For example:
• Practice isolating phonemes by having her tell you the individual sounds she hears in words. Keep in mind that we’re not focusing on spelling, but the sounds that make up words instead. The word dog would have three sounds: /d/, /o/, /g/.
• A more advanced game would be to switch out the first sound of a word to make a new one. For example, switch the sound /m/ in mat for a /k/ to form the word cat.
• Get in the habit of coming up with rhyming words. Try it during a car ride or when waiting in line at the supermarket. This can be a fun way to pass the time and it will enhance your child’s phonological awareness.
• Help your little girl think of a number of words that start with the same sound. For example, mention words that start with the /m/ sound like mat, make and more.
• Read books with rhymes. They are entertaining and children this age love them! Look for books that are fun to read out loud and are easy to memorize. After you’ve read it a couple of times, your little one will be able to join in on the fun and help you finish sentences from the story.

Pattern recognition: The key to language development

A study from the University of Sydney and the Australian National University found that children’s language development is linked to their ability to recognize patterns in their environment. In other words, children who were better at identifying visual patterns had a better grasp on grammar.

The studied 68 children, between 6 and 8 years old, and assessed them on two separate tasks: grammatical knowledge and visual pattern learning. Researchers found a strong connection between children who were able to identify patterns in a cartoon sequence on a computer and those who scored higher on the grammar test.

This proves that children have an amazing learning capacity. Without being consciously aware of it, their brains are continuously absorbing and calculating patterns or statistics. In the case of language development, they analyze which words follow others regularly, the context in which they are used, etc. This study is important because it lays the groundwork for understanding language development and grammar as a learnt skill, not something we are born with. This explains why children acquire language at different rates.

There are a lot of simple everyday things that you can do at home to help your little one learn to identify patterns. For example, when you dress him for the day, notice the patterns on his clothes: “You’re wearing stripes today!”. You can also create a pattern while walking: “Step. Step. Stop. Step. Step. Stop”. Have your little one make his own patterns using different materials like playdough, crayons or even cereal!

Patterns are all around us. Get in the habit of pointing them out to your little one and soon he will be finding them by himself! This will in turn boost his language development.

My little one stutters, should I be concerned?

A lot of parents worry when their child stutters, but such concern is unnecessary. It’s actually quite common for children around the age of two or three to stutter by repeating sounds, syllables or even words sometimes. In fact, approximately 5% of all children are likely to sttuter at some point. It usually happens between the ages of two and a half and five, and children can even go back and forth between periods of fluency and disfluency. Most children don’t even realize they are speaking incorrectly and then just grow out of it after some time.

When is it considered actual stuttering?
When this behavior persists over two to three months and it doesn’t let your little one communicate effectively, then it’s considered stuttering. It’s three times more common in boys than in girls and the cause is unknown. Look out for the following signs:
• Repeating sounds or syllables (for example, “b-b-banana”)
• Sound prolongations (for example, “sssssssounds good”)
• Trying to make a sound that doesn’t come out, or a physical struggle when speaking
• Behaviors that go along with speaking difficulty (for example, eye blinking)
• Frustration or negative feelings towards speaking
• A family history of stuttering
• Disfluencies lasting longer than 6 months

Getting professional help early on gives children the best chance for reducing stuttering. Talk to your pediatrician about it and he or she will be able to recommend a speech-language professional to assess and help your little one. In the meantime, the best approach is to ignore the stuttering when your kid talks. The less frustrated he becomes with talking, the better. So, don’t correct him or finish sentences for him. Be patient and listen to what he has to say. Demonstrate that you are accepting towards your little one and build self-esteem by praising other activities he does correctly around the house.

Your three-year-old’s linguistic development

At around age three, children have an active vocabulary consisting of 300 or more words. In fact, the average child has the capacity to acquire four to six words per day, given access to new words in daily experiences. At this age, conversational skills flourish as well, as kids are now able to talk in sentences of three to four words and imitate speech sounds.

Your little girl’s new language skills allow her to express her thoughts. The more advanced they are, the more she’ll be able to communicate and learn. These new language skills bring on new discoveries because of the many “why,” “what” and “how” questions your little one is now able to ask.  For example, when she doesn’t know the word for something, she’ll be able to ask “What’s this?” and you’ll be able to provide an answer, continuing to expand her vocabulary.

Three-year-olds are still learning to properly use pronouns like “me” and “you”. Granted, they are simple words to pronounce, but they are difficult concepts to grasp, and the terms change depending on who’s talking. Lead by example and use those words correctly in your speech so that your little one can imitate you. At this age, your daughter’s speech will be much clearer, so much so that even strangers will be able to understand what she is saying. Before, you might have noticed that you were the only one who could understand what she was trying to communicate.

You can stimulate your little one’s linguistic skills by singing, rhyming and talking about what you are doing together. Reading books is also a great idea! Choose books that have a simple plot and talk about the story line with your child. Once you are done reading, help your child retell the story and talk about your favorite parts. You can work on language comprehension by asking questions related to the story.

Your two-year-old’s linguistic development

Around his second birthday, your little one will understand most of what you say and his vocabulary will increase significantly, starting with fifty or more words. During this year, he’ll begin speaking in more complete sentences, made up of four to six words, but you’ll probably need to “translate” what he says to others due to immature pronunciation skills. With an increased vocabulary comes a better use of language to express ideas and desires –make sure to listen to them! An advance in language skills also brings on new discoveries because of the many “why,” “what” and “how” questions your little one is now able to ask.

Although it is tempting, try to avoid comparing your child’s verbal abilities to other children his age. This is a time with great variation. For some children, language develops at a steady rate and for others it doesn’t. Some children are more talkative than others, but it doesn’t mean that they are smarter or have a richer vocabulary, it simply means that quieter children are more selective when speaking. These variations tend to even out around the time children start school.

If you’re worried about your child’s language development, talk to your pediatrician about it. He or she will first want to rule out any physical problems that might be delaying language acquisition like fluid buildup in your little one’s ears or trouble coordinating the mouth and throat muscles. One in every ten to fifteen children has trouble with speech or language comprehension. Early detection of a language delay or hearing problem is very important, so that it doesn’t hinder learning in other areas of development.

Help boost your child’s language skills by including reading time in your daily routine. This is also a great bonding activity, because you can cuddle up and share a book together. At this age, your little one will be able to follow a simple storyline and even remember parts of the story.

The best way to read with your 3-year-old

Preschoolers love books and learn from sharing them with you. Reading together and talking about books will not only build your little one’s vocabulary, it’ll provide special one-on-one quality time that strengthens the bond between you guys.

It’s a great idea to make reading part of your daily routine –perhaps before bedtime. Depending on your child’s age, you can focus on different aspects of the reading experience to get the most out of it. Here are a few examples of what your child can do at three years old and what you can do to maximize the reading experience!

At three years old:
Your child can: At this stage, your little one can tell you the name of the story he wants to read. He might also like to pretend he’s reading out loud to you. He’ll probably ask a lot of questions about the story and tell you how it is similar to his life. He might have a favorite book and be able to tell you his version of it and even “correct” you if you skip a page or say a different word while reading.

You can: Find a quiet, cozy place where you and your child can cuddle up and read together. Ask your little one to participate by telling you about the pictures in the story. While reading, pay attention to your child’s cues and respond with excitement to his questions or comments. Read joyfully, using different tones of voice for each character. You can also talk about emotions, what are the different characters feeling? Finally, ask your child to point out all of the things in a picture that are similar in some way –for example, look for shapes and colors.

The best way to read with your 2-year-old

Including reading time in your daily routine not only boosts language development, but provides you with special one-on-one quality time that strengthens the bond between you and your little one.

Depending on your girl’s age, you can focus on different aspects of the reading experience to get the most out of it. The American Academy of Pediatrics has created a literacy toolkit that includes great tips for parents and caregivers who wish to profit from their kid’s reading time! This article will summarize a few key points about reading with a 2-year-old throughout two stages: 24-29 months and 30-35 months. Within each age range, you’ll find examples of what your child can do and what you can do to maximize the reading experience!

24 to 29 months old
Your child can: At this age, your little girl can choose a book to read together –it might be the same one over and over again! She’ll probably be able to repeat a few words and phrases you say while reading, and love to laugh at silly stories and pictures. Your child might be curious and ask simple questions about the book like “What’s that?”
You can: Find a quiet, cozy place where you and your child can cuddle up and read together. This is a great way to calm and comfort your daughter. While reading, pay attention to your child’s cues and respond with excitement. If she says an important word like “dog” you can say “Yes, that’s a dog! The dog is playing outside”. Read joyfully, using different tones of voice for each character. You can even count the objects in the pictures, and wait for your little one to repeat after you.

30 to 35 months old
Your child can: At this stage, your little girl can tell you the name of the story she wants to read and even remember the one you read last night. You might notice that she tells you about the pictures in the story and uses longer sentences. She might have a favorite book and be able to tell you her version of the plotline. She’ll ask you specific questions about the characters in the story and even incorporate those characters during playtime.
You can: Find a quiet, cozy place where you and your child can cuddle up and read together. When you are done reading, talk to her about how the things that happen in the story might be like things that happen in her life. You can also discuss the characters’ feelings –has your little one ever felt that way? Read joyfully, using different tones of voice for each character. You can even count the objects in a picture or find the ones that are alike in some way. For example, look for everything that’s red.

Happy reading 🙂

Choosing the right books for your preschooler

The preschool years are a time when children learn at a very rapid pace, it is especially noticeable in their language development. Taking a couple of minutes of the day to read with your child will dramatically increase his language skills. Plus, reading is a great bonding activity that will strengthen the emotional ties between you and your little one.

What sort of books are best for your preschooler? It’s important to find the right book, keeping in mind if it fits your child’s interests, maturity and reading level. Here are some basic things to look out for:

Preschoolers (3 – 5 years old):
• Illustrations are still very attractive for this age group. Look for picture books with colorful and big pictures that you can comment about while reading.
• Does your little one have a favorite character? From Barney to Paw Patrol, there’s plenty to choose from. Pay attention to your child’s interests and work around them.
• Find stories with basic plotlines about subjects that your little one is curious about or that somehow relate to your child’s experiences.
• Children this age love rhyming books. Look for books that are fun to read out loud and are easy to memorize so that your son can eventually join in on the fun! Dr. Seuss’s books are a great option!
• Stories that review basic concepts like colors, shapes, letters and numbers are always good to have around.
• Activity books, such as hunt-and-find books or sticker books, are another great option for fun during reading time. They provide endless entertainment for this age group.

Where can you find these books? They’re everywhere! Get to know the children’s section of your local library or bookstore or simply order them online. There are tons of great lists of recommended books, take a look at these:

Phonemic production and language acquisition

As adults, we have mastered language to the extent that we have long forgotten the frustration of not being able to communicate our needs and wants. Even more, we can even learn new words without needing more than a couple of exposures, and the only time we struggle to articulate a sound is when we speak another language. Young children, on the other hand, are very familiar with the struggle of trying to say something without knowing the words or having limited pronunciation capabilities.

Language acquisition is a complex process. On one hand, it involves the cognitive development of symbolizing an object through a system of written or spoken signs. In the other hand, it requires the physical aspects of producing specific sounds with the lips, teeth, palate, jaw, breathing and vocal cords, and to articulate them in a myriad of different combinations and sequences.

In every language, a unit of speech sound is called a phoneme. Each language has a different set of sound systems, and they all have phonemes that vary tremendously in difficulty. Hence, children acquire phonemes at different ages. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, this happens mostly between 24 and 60 months of age, although by 4 years old most children will have mastered most of their mother tongue’s sounds, frequently with the exception of the /r/ because it’s more difficult to pronounce. As early as 1971, language therapists have identified that there’s a strong correlation between how preschoolers detect and distinguish different spoken sounds, and their ability to reproduce those phonemes when speaking. Following an article published in the British Journal of Disorders of Communication, the best recommendation to foster your daughter’s capacity to pronounce different phonemes is to expose her constantly to spoken words.