Given the importance of pretend play, many parents may wonder at what age does pretend play start to emerge in children?
The praise parents give to their kids can strongly influence their self-esteem, intelligence, and disposition to take on challenges. However, according to new studies, certain types of praise may actually do more harm than good. For example, saying: “you are so smart”, may not be the best type of praise – it could even discourage a child to take on new challenges. Research by Carol Dweck, world-renowned Stanford University psychologist, showed that children who perceive their success as a result of their inherent intelligence, were more prone to have a “fixed mindset”. This means that they see talent and intelligence as something they were born with, not as skills that can be learned and nurtured through effort. This becomes especially problematic when their identities become attached to an outcome.
But what exactly happens when a child grows up hearing praises like “you are so smart”?
According to Dr. John Medina, author of the national bestseller “Brain Rules for Baby”, your child will start to perceive his mistakes as failures. This happens because he is used to seeing his previous successes as a static ability, that is, natural talents he was born with rather than a product of his effort. Failure is thus perceived as a lack of ability, which he has no control over. Continue reading